A fixed-gear bicycle (or fixed-wheel bicycle, popularly known as a fixie) is a bicycle that has a drivetrain with no freewheel mechanism. The freewheel was developed early in the history of bicycle design but the fixed-gear bicycle remained the standard track racing design. More recently the 'fixie' has become a popular alternative among mainly urban cyclists, offering the advantages of simplicity compared with the standard multi-geared bicycle. Most bicycles incorporate a freewheel to allow the pedals to remain stationary while the bicycle is in motion, so that the rider can coast, i.e., ride without pedalling using the forward or downhill momentum of bike and rider. A fixed-gear drivetrain has the drive sprocket (or cog) threaded or bolted directly to the hub of the back wheel, so that the rider cannot stop pedalling. When the rear wheel turns, the pedals turn in the same direction.[1] This allows a cyclist to apply a weak braking force without using a brake, by resisting the rotation of the cranks. It also makes it possible to ride backwards although learning to do so is much more difficult than riding forwards. As a rule, fixed-gear bicycles are single-speed. A derailleur cannot be fitted because the chain cannot have any slack, but hub gearing can, for example a Sturmey-Archer 3-speed fixed hub. Most fixed-gear bicycles only have a front brake, and so e have no brakes at all. The track bicycle is a form of fixed-gear bicycle used for track cycling in a velodrome. But since a fixed-gear bicycle is just a bicycle without a freewheel, a fixed-gear bicycle can be almost any type of bicycle.[3] A fixed/freewheel rear hub (flip-flop) Some road racing and club cyclists used a fixed-gear bicycle for training during the winter months, generally using a relatively low gear ratio, believed to help develop a good pedalling style.[4] In the UK until the 1950s it was common for riders to use fixed-gear bicycles for time trials. The 1959 British 25 mile time trial championship was won by Alf Engers with a competition record of 55 minutes 11 seconds, riding an 84 inch fixed-gear bicycle.[5][6][7][8] The fixed-gear was also commonly used, and continues to be used in the end of season hill climb races in the autumn.[9][10] A typical club men's fixed-gear machine would have been a "road/path" or "road/track" cycle. In the era when most riders only had one cycle, the same bike when stripped down and fitted with racing wheels was used for road time trials and track racing, and when fitted with mudguards (fenders) and a bag, it was used for club runs, touring and winter training.[11][12][13][14] By the 1960s, multi-gear derailleurs had become the norm and riding fixed-gear on the road declined over the next few decades.